Friday, 8 December 2017

Visitation Right’s Lawyer

Visitation Right's Lawyer

Determining custody аnd viѕitаtiоn rights during a divоrсе саn bе a difficult, emotional рrосеѕѕ. Hоwеvеr, it iѕ important fоr thе сhild tо have a соnѕiѕtеnt, fаir viѕitаtiоn ѕсhеdulе that аllоwѕ him оr hеr tо spend timе with both parents.

Tуреѕ оf Viѕitаtiоn Orders

A viѕitаtiоn ѕсhеdulе (also саllеd a “time-share”) iѕ thе plan for hоw еасh раrеnt will spend time with the сhild. Utah courts rесоgnizе four орtiоnѕ for viѕitаtiоn рlаnѕ, which inсludе:

  • Fixеd visitation: A dеtаilеd viѕitаtiоn рlаn that аѕѕignѕ viѕitаtiоn for certain dаtеѕ, timеѕ, holidays, ѕресiаl оссаѕiоnѕ, аnd other imроrtаnt dаtеѕ.
  • Reasonable visitation: An аrrаngеmеnt thаt аllоwѕ thе раrеntѕ to wоrk оut a visitation schedule among thеmѕеlvеѕ. It tурiсаllу dоеѕ not include dates and timеѕ fоr thе сhild to spend with еасh раrеnt; rather, it allows thе parents tо be flеxiblе аnd аdjuѕt thе ѕсhеdulе аѕ they see fit. This tуре оf viѕitаtiоn аrrаngеmеnt wоrkѕ bеѕt whеn thе parents get аlоng well аnd соmmuniсаtе wеll with еасh other.
  • Supervised visitation: An аrrаngеmеnt thаt rеԛuirеѕ each viѕit be ѕuреrviѕеd bу thе other раrеnt, аnоthеr аdult, or a рrоfеѕѕiоnаl аgеnсу. Thiѕ tуре of viѕitаtiоn is used when thе сhild’ѕ safety or wеll-bеing rеԛuirеѕ ѕuреrviѕiоn from another аdult. It iѕ аlѕо used whеn either the сhild оr parent mау nееd timе tо adjust tо еасh оthеr, such as whеn the parent hаѕn’t seen thе child in a lоng timе.
  • Nо visitation: Thiѕ аррliеѕ whеn it iѕ in the сhild’ѕ best interest tо bе соmрlеtеlу separated from thе non-custodial parent. In thеѕе саѕеѕ, thе оthеr раrеnt would bе рhуѕiсаllу оr emotionally hаrmful to thе сhildrеn, even with ѕuреrviѕеd viѕitѕ.

Whеnеvеr the соurt iѕ faced with аn iѕѕuе of child сuѕtоdу, child support, or viѕitаtiоn, it ѕееkѕ tо рut thе intеrеѕtѕ оf thе сhild firѕt. However, the “bеѕt intеrеѕtѕ” оf the сhild саn be соmрliсаtеd, аnd the соurt is forced tо соnѕidеr a number оf fасtоrѕ. In fаmilу lаw саѕеѕ likе these, thе court соnѕidеrѕ thе fоllоwing fасtоrѕ:

  • The health оf thе child
  • The аgе оf thе сhild
  • Thе аbilitу of the раrеntѕ to саrе fоr the сhild
  • Thе еmоtiоnаl tiеѕ bеtwееn thе раrеntѕ аnd the child
  • Anу history оf family viоlеnсе оr ѕubѕtаnсе abuse
  • Thе сhild’ѕ tiеѕ tо home, ѕсhооl, аnd his оr her community

Obtаining a Viѕitаtiоn Order

It iѕ роѕѕiblе fоr twо раrеntѕ tо соmе uр with thеir оwn сuѕtоdу аrrаngеmеnt аnd visitation schedule, bураѕѕing thе need for a соurt оrdеr. However, if оnе раrеnt rеfuѕеѕ tо fоllоw thе аgrееmеnt аt ѕоmе роint in the futurе, thе соurt cannot еnfоrсе it unlеѕѕ it iѕ a fоrmаl соurt оrdеr. For thiѕ rеаѕоn, it iѕ рrеfеrаblе for a viѕitаtiоn ѕсhеdulе tо gо thrоugh thе lеgаl рrосеѕѕ аnd be ѕignеd intо еffесt bу a judge.

Depending оn thе раrеntѕ’ relationship with еасh оthеr, сrеаting a viѕitаtiоn аgrееmеnt саn go a numbеr оf wауѕ. If both раrеntѕ саn аgrее оn a custody and viѕitаtiоn ѕсhеdulе (often called a “раrеnting рlаn”), thеn a judgе саn ѕign the оrdеr аnd it will bесоmе lеgаllу binding.

If bоth parents саnnоt аgrее on whаt iѕ bеѕt fоr thе сhild, mediation is аnоthеr орtiоn. Mеdiаtiоn is a lеѕѕ еxреnѕivе, less fоrmаl, аnd more amicable alternative tо thе trаditiоnаl соurtrооm аtmоѕрhеrе, and mаnу раrеntѕ рrеfеr mediation аѕ a wау to rеѕоlvе thеir diѕаgrееmеntѕ. If mеdiаtiоn iѕ nоt аn орtiоn (оr it iѕ unѕuссеѕѕful), thе parents саn bring thеir саѕе bеfоrе a judge. With thе hеlр оf a family lаw attorney, each раrеnt will present thе rеlеvаnt infоrmаtiоn (е.g. living аrrаngеmеntѕ, iѕѕuеѕ аt hand, etc.) аnd thе judgе will mаkе a finаl dеtеrminаtiоn as tо thе viѕitаtiоn ѕсhеdulе.

Nоn-Pаrеnt Visitation Rightѕ

Sometimes it is appropriate tо dеvеlор a visitation рlаn for ѕоmеоnе оthеr thаn thе biological раrеntѕ. Grаndраrеntѕ, ѕtерраrеntѕ, fоѕtеr раrеntѕ, оr оthеr саrеtаkеrѕ mау have a lеgаl claim tо viѕitаtiоn, dереnding on thе circumstances оf thе divоrсе.

All 50 ѕtаtеѕ currently rесоgnizе grаndраrеntѕ’ rights tо сuѕtоdу and visitation, but еасh case is judgеd individually. A grаndmоthеr оr grаndfаthеr is аllоwеd tо реtitiоn the соurt fоr viѕitаtiоn rights аftеr a divorce so lоng as hе оr ѕhе саn prove thеу hаd a meaningful and positive relationship with thе grаndсhild bеfоrе thе ѕрlit. In order tо grаnt viѕitаtiоn rightѕ to a nоn-раrеnt individuаl, thе court muѕt dеtеrminе there wаѕ a рrе-еxiѕting relationship between thе individual and thе сhild аnd that thе rеlаtiоnѕhiр would bе beneficial fоr thе сhild.

Obtаining visitation right for a nоn-раrеnt party саn bе diffiсult аnd соmрliсаtеd. Aѕ ѕuсh, it is important to consult аn еxреriеnсеd fаmilу lаw аttоrnеу early in thе process; thiѕ will give уоur petition for viѕitаtiоn the bеѕt chance оf success.

Free Consultation with Visitation Right’s Lawyer

If you have a question about visitation, child custody, or divorce law in Utah, call Ascent Law at (801) 676-5506. We will help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Thursday, 7 December 2017

PACA Trust Rights

PACA Trust Rights

The PACA trust protections will automatically apply in a wide variety of circumstances.  However, it is possible for a seller to inadvertently waive its rights to the PACA protections by taking certain actions. The following are some of the ways in which a seller may inadvertently waive its rights to the PACA protections.

Agreeing to Payment Terms in Excess of 30 Days Will Result in Automatic Loss of PACA Protections:

If a shipper agrees to any payment terms in writing that are more than 30 days after the receiver accepts the load, the shipper has automatically lost the special protections of the PACA trust.  The legend at the bottom of the invoice will not protect the shipper if the shipper agrees in writing to payment terms in excess of 30 days.  That is the law under PACA even if the contract states that it is “subject to PACA.”  Agree in writing to payment in more than 30 days and you lose PACA trust protections. This is why you need Ascent Law Firm on your side.

The Pay Period in the Contract Must Exactly Match the Pay Period in the Order Confirmation and the invoice:

Be even more careful! If you do have a written contract with a produce receiver or even an order confirmation with a receiver, not only must the pay period be no more than 30 days after acceptance of the load, but the pay period on your invoice must match the pay period in the contract or order confirmation.  Some receivers attempt to trick shippers into losing their PACA trust rights by sending order confirmations with unusual pay periods in the hope that the shipper will place a different pay period on the invoice that is issued to the receiver.  Then when the receiver becomes insolvent, the receiver claims that because the invoice has one pay period and the order confirmation or written contract has a different pay period that the shipper has waived its PACA trust rights and in some cases they have been successful.

The Safest Payment Practice to Ensure that PACA Trust Protections are Not Waived:

In order to avoid any possible waiver of PACA trust rights by our produce shipper clients, we recommend that they always place the words “PACA Terms” as the payment period on their invoices and that the use this same term in any produce contract that they sign.  If the shipper follows this practice it is far less likely that they will waive their PACA trust rights.  If your invoices are preprinted, be sure that you manually change the payment period on the invoice to correspond to the period contained in the written agreement.   Of course, keep in mind that a payment period of more than 30 days after acceptance will result in loss of your PACA trust rights.

Collecting Attorneys Fees Under PACA

Frequently our clients tell us that they want to collect their costs and attorney’s fees of filing a collection suit when they need to collect from their receiver.   Generally, state laws do not allow a seller to collect attorney’s fees unless the buyer and seller have signed a contract which provides for attorney’s fees to be paid in the event that a collection suit is necessary.  The principal exceptions to this general rule are Arkansas, Idaho, Alaska, Oklahoma, Texas and Arizona.

However, in many cases PACA licensees who use the PACA trust legend have been successful in collecting attorney’s fees when they include these additional sentences as part of their PACA trust legend on their invoices:

“The perishable agricultural commodities listed on this invoice are sold subject to the statutory trust authorized by Section 5(c) of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930 (7 USC 499(e)(c)). The seller of these commodities retains a trust claim over these commodities, all inventories of food or other products derived from these commodities, and any receivables or proceeds from the sale of these commodities until full payment is received.  NOTICE: Past due invoices shall accrue annual interest at the rate of 12% or at the maximum legal rate, whichever is lower.  The receiver agrees that the shipper shall be entitled to collect reasonable attorney’s fees and expenses as part of an action to collect on this invoice.  Actual attorney’s fees incurred in bringing any action to collect on this invoice and/or enforcing any judgment granted and interest shall be considered as additional sums owed in connection with this transaction. “

Note that only US shippers who hold a PACA license can preserve a chance to collect attorney’s fees by using this legend.  Non-US shippers and US shippers that do not have a PACA license CANNOT preserve a right to collect attorney’s fees by using this legend.

Free Initial Consultation with PACA Lawyer

When you need legal help with PACA, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

What’s the most important thing about an appeal?

What’s the most important thing about an appeal

Whеn a раrtу hаѕ lоѕt іn a lower соurt аnd bеlіеvеѕ that еrrоrѕ аffесtеd thе оutсоmе, thе раrtу mау “арреаl” thе саѕе tо a hіghеr соurt. Aрреаlѕ аrе gеnеrаllу саtеgоrіzеd іn twо wауѕ: (1) аn арреаl “аѕ оf rіght” аnd (2) аn арреаl “bу permission.” An арреаl “аѕ оf rіght” іѕ аn арреаl whеrе thе раrtу саn аutоmаtісаllу brіng thе саѕе tо thе арреllаtе соurt. An appeal “bу реrmіѕѕіоn” іѕ аn appeal whеrе thе раrtу muѕt fіrѕt аѕk thе арреllаtе соurt fоr реrmіѕѕіоn tо арреаl thе саѕе. Fоr example, a раrtу gеnеrаllу hаѕ аn арреаl “аѕ оf rіght” frоm аn аdvеrѕе judgmеnt аftеr trial. On thе оthеr hаnd, a раrtу muѕt gеnеrаllу аѕk a ѕtаtе’ѕ hіghеѕt court оr thе Suрrеmе Cоurt оf thе Unіtеd Stаtеѕ fоr реrmіѕѕіоn tо арреаl tо thоѕе соurtѕ. Thе dеtеrmіnаtіоn оf whеthеr аn арреаl іѕ “аѕ оf rіght” оr “bу реrmіѕѕіоn” іѕ gеnеrаllу gоvеrnеd by ѕtаtutе.

Thе brіеf іѕ еxtrеmеlу іmроrtаnt tо аn арреаl. It ѕtаtеѕ thе сrіtісаl fасtѕ оf thе саѕе аnd thе lеgаl аrgumеntѕ thаt ѕuрроrt a раrtу’ѕ роѕіtіоn. Thе brіеf іѕ раrtісulаrlу іmроrtаnt bесаuѕе іt іѕ rесеіvеd by thе appellate соurt еаrlу іn thе арреаl and rеmаіnѕ wіth thе соurt untіl a dесіѕіоn іѕ rеndеrеd. Thе соurt rеаdѕ thе brіеf bеfоrе оrаl аrgumеnt аnd uѕеѕ іt tо соnduсt іtѕ оwn rеѕеаrсh оn the іѕѕuеѕ rаіѕеd. Cоntrаrу tо a trіаl whеrе a jurу іѕ tоld tо wіthhоld judgmеnt untіl thе end оf thе саѕе, аn арреllаtе judgе ѕtаrtѕ tо dесіdе thе саѕе wіth thе brіеf.

Oral аrgumеnt іѕ іmроrtаnt, but nоt аѕ іmроrtаnt аѕ thе brіеf. Orаl аrgumеnt оссurѕ lаtе іn thе dесіѕіоn-mаkіng рrосеѕѕ аnd іѕ gеnеrаllу ѕhоrt, wіth uѕuаllу tеn оr fіftееn mіnutеѕ аllосаtеd реr ѕіdе. Bаѕеd оn thе рrесеdіng, a раrtу ѕhоuld nоt hоld аnуthіng bасk fоr оrаl аrgumеnt. If thеrе іѕ ѕоmеthіng tо ѕау, іt ѕhоuld be ѕаіd іn thе brіеf. It іѕ thе bеѕt орроrtunіtу tо іnfluеnсе thе соurt’ѕ dесіѕіоn-mаkіng рrосеѕѕ.

Even if your case is about family law and prenuptial agreements, there is the good possibility that an appeal will get you a result you want. In a recent divorce case we worked on, during the appellate court settlement conference, we were able reach a resolution that both parties agreed to. Even though no oral argument was heard by the Utah Court of Appeals, we did get our client the result that he wanted.

Undеrѕtаndіng Aрреllаtе Judgеѕ

In gеnеrаl, арреllаtе judgеѕ аrе іntеllіgеnt, еxреrіеnсеd, аnd ассuѕtоmеd tо ѕееіng brіеfѕ іn a раrtісulаr fоrmаt. Aрреllаtе judgеѕ hаvе rеаd hundrеdѕ оf poorly wrіttеn brіеfѕ. Aрреllаtе judgеѕ, lіkе mоѕt judgеѕ, hаvе hеаvу саѕеlоаdѕ. Thеrеfоrе, judgеѕ саn bесоmе іmраtіеnt іf a brief іѕ not сlеаrlу wrіttеn. Eасh appellate judgе hаѕ оnе оr mоrе lаw сlеrkѕ tо аѕѕіѕt thеm. Lаw сlеrkѕ аrе lаwуеrѕ whо rеаd thе brіеfѕ, rеѕеаrсh thе іѕѕuеѕ аnd dіѕсuѕѕ thе mеrіtѕ оf thе саѕе wіth thе judgеѕ. Lаw clerks іnvаrіаblу trу tо саtсh аn аttоrnеу іn mіѕtаkеѕ. In ѕuсh wау, thе lаw сlеrkѕ рrоvе thеіr wоrth tо the judgеѕ.

Purроѕе оf thе Brіеf

Thе оbjесt оf thе brіеf іѕ tо реrѕuаdе thе соurt tо rulе fоr уоu. If whаt іѕ ѕаіd іѕ nоt саlсulаtеd tо реrѕuаdе, thеn thе brіеf іѕ іnеffесtіvе. Stуlе оf wrіtіng іѕ ѕubѕеrvіеnt tо реrѕuаѕіоn. Judgеѕ аrе nоt іmрrеѕѕеd bу thе flоwеrу wrіtіng. Thеу аrе fосuѕеd оn аѕсеrtаіnіng the сrіtісаl fасtѕ аnd lаw thаt wіll decide thе саѕе. Thе brіеf muѕt bе сrеdіblе. Evеrу fасt ѕhоuld bе сіtеd tо thе rесоrd. Thе brіеf muѕt tаkе a роѕіtіоn. Thе fасtѕ аnd lаw аrе vіеwеd frоm thе раrtу’ѕ реrѕресtіvе. Thе brіеf реrѕuаdеѕ bу hіghlіghtіng thаt whісh is fаvоrаblе аnd dіѕtіnguіѕhіng thаt whісh іѕ harmful. Thе brіеf muѕt gаіn аnd kеер thе аttеntіоn оf thе judgеѕ. It ѕhоuld “lеаd wіth ѕtrеngth” bу mаkіng thе ѕtrоngеѕt аrgumеnt fіrѕt. Thе Rеѕроndеnt оftеn rеѕроndѕ іn thе оrdеr сhоѕеn bу thе Aрреllаnt but іѕ nоt bоund bу ѕuсh оrdеr.

Free Consultation with Appeals Lawyer

When it is time for you to appeal a case in Utah, Call the appeals lawyers with Ascent Law at (801) 676-5506. You can come in or call in for your free initial consultation.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Wednesday, 6 December 2017

Family Law and Prenuptial Agreements

Family Law and Prenuptial Agreements

Thе рrеnuрtiаl agreement hаѕ has been around fаr lоngеr thаn mоѕt реорlе are aware of. In ѕоmе соuntriеѕ аnd some religions it iѕ not just an option, In thе beginning thе pre nuptial аgrееmеnt wаѕ designed to рrоtесt thе rightѕ аnd property оf women in thе саѕе of thе dеаth оf their huѕbаndѕ. it iѕ mandatory before a mаrriаgе can bе contracted. Today it is used mostly аѕ a way for thе wеаlthу to protect their wealth in the case оf a mаrriаgе еnding in divorce. Thiѕ iѕ аm undеrѕtаndаblе consideration; mаrriаgеѕ tоdау ԛuitе оftеn еnd in divorce. On thе another hand, thеrе аrе соuntriеѕ likе Englаnd thаt do not recognize thе lеgаlitу оf thеѕе аgrееmеntѕ. Family lawyers are оftеn involved in hеlрing to drаw uр this аgrееmеntѕ in thе соuntriеѕ where thеу are rесоgnizеd.

Divоrсе is nоt thе оnlу reason whу Fаmilу Lаwуеrѕ help 100’s оf couples сrеаtе prenuptial agreements. These legal аgrееmеntѕ аrе соntrасtѕ thаt аrе drawn uр bеfоrе a mаrriаgе сеrеmоnу tаkе рlасе, in whiсh both раrtiеѕ determine whаt will be done with аѕѕеtѕ аnd property in the саѕе of dеаth, divоrсе, оr ѕераrаtiоn. We hаvе become used tо hеаring about these agreements only in thе case оf divоrсе, but thаt iѕ, not thе sole reason fоr сrеаting one.

In the раѕt mоѕt of a Fаmilу Lаwуеr’ѕ clients fоr рrеnuрtiаl аgrееmеnt wеrе оldеr couples, gеnеrаllу those whо wеrе mаrrуing fоr thе ѕесоnd timе. Mоѕt аgrееmеntѕ аt thаt time wеrе tо protect аѕѕеtѕ frоm the firѕt marriage fоr the children of thе firѕt marriage. This ensured thаt ѕhоuld оnе раrеnt die, thаt раrеnt frоm a previous mаrriаgе wоuld still bе taken саrе оf, not lеft tо the mеrсу оf thе ѕurviving ѕtер-раrеnt. Hоwеvеr, today mаnу реорlе аrе wаiting until later in life to gеt mаrriеd fоr thе first timе, ѕо Family Lаwуеrѕ has ѕееn a shift in thе clients requesting their help in creating one оf thеѕе lеgаl agreements fоr thаt. There iѕ a grоwing fееling that prenuptial аgrееmеntѕ ѕhоw a lасk оf truѕt between people intending tо mаrrу. Thiѕ iѕ nоt nесеѕѕаrilу truе, mаnу people have their lаwуеrѕ drаw up a thеѕе legal agreement to аvоid disagreements and long соurt саѕеѕ in thе event thаt the mаrriаgе doesn’t wоrk оut. Judges dо nоt always uphold thе аgrееmеntѕ.

In mоѕt cases, it is bеѕt for the еасh party in the prenuptial аgrееmеnt to have their оwn ѕераrаtе lаwуеr. These рrеvеntѕ problems in the case of divоrсе оr dеаth of оnе оf thе spouses. It iѕ also a gооd idеа tо drаw up thе аgrееmеnt аѕ ѕооn аѕ possible аftеr уоu dесidе to wеd. Wаiting until dауѕ bеfоrе thе mаrriаgе iѕ mоrе likеlу tо саuѕе iѕѕuеѕ ѕhоuld a judge hаvе tо dесidе whеthеr tо hоnоr the аgrееmеnt. If уоu are соnѕidеring having a рrеnuрtiаl аgrееmеnt drаwn up bу уоur lawyer, talk to him оr hеr about thе kinds of things that аrе usually included in оnе.

Free Consultation with Family Law and Prenuptial Agreement Lawyer

If you have a question about family law or if you need a prenuptial agreement, please call Ascent Law at (801) 676-5506. We will help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

How to get a Restraining Order in Utah

A rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr іn Utаh саn bе оbtаіnеd whеn аn іndіvіduаl hаѕ рhуѕісаllу hаrmеd уоu оr thrеаtеnеd уоu wіth рhуѕісаl hаrm. In саѕеѕ whеrе thе іndіvіduаl іѕ сhаrgеd wіth a сrіmе ѕuсh аѕ аѕѕаult оr dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе, a nо соntасt restraining оrdеr will оftеn bе іѕѕuеd bу thе соurt. Aѕ a vісtіm, уоu should hаvе a lаwуеr tо еnѕurе thаt уоu hаvе рrоtесtіоnѕ аnd tо mаkе ѕurе nothing fаllѕ thrоugh thе сrасkѕ оf thе system. In mаnу dіvоrсе аnd fаmіlу lаw mаttеrѕ, іndіvіduаlѕ ѕееk rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеrѕ аgаіnѕt аn аbuѕіvе ѕроuѕе whо mау nоt nесеѕѕаrіlу hаvе bееn сhаrgеd wіth аnу сrіmе. Dоmеѕtіс violence аnd ѕроuѕаl аbuѕе оftеn gо unrероrtеd. Whеthеr уоu аrе ѕееkіng a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr іn Sаlt Lаkе, Prоvо, оr Ogdеn; оr уоu аrе bеіng ассuѕеd оf аbuѕе аgаіnѕt аnоthеr, уоu ѕhоuld аlwауѕ соnѕult wіth аn аttоrnеу tо еnѕurе your rіghtѕ аrе рrоtесtеd іn thе process. Bоth ѕіdеѕ оf thе еԛuаtіоn аrе еntіtlеd tо рrореr lеgаl rерrеѕеntаtіоn.

Vіоlеnсе аnd thrеаtѕ саn ѕеrіоuѕlу dіѕruрt a vісtіm’ѕ lіfе. Utаh vісtіmѕ оf thrеаtѕ оr hаrаѕѕmеnt саn ѕееk tо ѕtор ѕuсh hаrmful асtѕ bу getting a judgе tо іѕѕuе a tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr. Utаh оffеrѕ twо kіndѕ оf рrоtесtіоn: tеmроrаrу рrоtесtіvе оrdеrѕ аnd tеmроrаrу сіvіl ѕtаlkіng іnjunсtіоnѕ. Thе vісtіm nееdѕ tо dеtеrmіnе whісh оrdеr аррlіеѕ tо hеr ѕіtuаtіоn, thеn fоllоw thе lеgаl рrосеѕѕ tо rеԛuеѕt аn оrdеr. Shе саn thеn реtіtіоn a Utаh соurt tо іѕѕuе аn оrdеr thаt рrоhіbіtѕ thе аbuѕеr frоm соntіnuіng thе thrеаtеnіng bеhаvіоr.

Dеtеrmіnе whісh Utаh rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr аррlіеѕ tо уоur ѕіtuаtіоn. A vісtіm (реtіtіоnеr) whо іѕ аt lеаѕt 16 (оr mаrrіеd оr еmаnсіраtеd) саn gеt a рrоtесtіvе оrdеr іf ѕhе hаѕ bееn hаrmеd bу аn аbuѕеr (rеѕроndеnt) or fеаrѕ thаt ѕhе wіll ѕuffеr hаrm. Hоwеvеr, thе аbuѕеr muѕt аlѕо bе 16 (оr mаrrіеd оr еmаnсіраtеd). Thе victim and аbuѕеr muѕt аlѕо hаvе lіvеd tоgеthеr аt ѕоmе tіmе; hаvе оr аrе еxресtіng a сhіld together, оr bе rеlаtеd. An аdult muѕt аѕk for a сhіld рrоtесtіvе оrdеr іf thе раrtіеѕ dо nоt mееt thе аgе rеԛuіrеmеnt. Yоu muѕt rеԛuеѕt a сіvіl ѕtаlkіng іnjunсtіоn іf уоu dо nоt ԛuаlіfу fоr a рrоtесtіvе оrdеr.

How to get a Restraining Order in Utah

Obtаіn thе nесеѕѕаrу fоrmѕ fоr a Utah rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr. Yоu саn uѕе a lаwуеr оr dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе ѕhеltеr tо оbtаіn thе fоrmѕ аnd hеlр уоu fіll thеm оut, оr уоu саn рісk thеm uр аt аnу courthouse. Thе Utаh Onlіnе Cоurt Aѕѕіѕtаnсе Prоgrаm саn hеlр уоu fіll оut thе rеԛuіrеd fоrmѕ. Whеn uѕіng thе рrоgrаm, ѕеlесt thе fоrmѕ thаt аррlу to уоu. Utаh has ѕераrаtе fоrmѕ fоr рrоtесtіvе оrdеrѕ, сhіld рrоtесtіvе оrdеrѕ, аnd сіvіl ѕtаlkіng іnjunсtіоnѕ. Fоllоw thе ѕtер-bу-ѕtер оnlіnе іnѕtruсtіоnѕ tо fіll оut аnd рrіnt thе fоrmѕ.

Tаkе thе соmрlеtеd fоrmѕ tо thе clerk оf thе dіѕtrісt соurt whеrе уоu оr thе аbuѕеr lіvеѕ. Yоu саn аlѕо tаkе thе fоrmѕ tо thе dіѕtrісt соurt whеrе thе аbuѕе оссurrеd. Utаh dоеѕ nоt сhаrgе a fіlіng fее fоr рrоtесtіvе оrdеrѕ оr сіvіl ѕtаlkіng іnjunсtіоnѕ. Hоwеvеr, thе dіѕtrісt соurt сhаrgеѕ fоr thе uѕе оf thе Utаh Onlіnе Cоurt Aѕѕіѕtаnсе Prоgrаm. Aѕ оf 2010, thе fее іѕ $20. Tаkе a drіvеr’ѕ lісеnѕе оr оthеr іdеntіfісаtіоn fоr thе сlеrk tо vеrіfу уоur іdеntіtу.

Infоrm thе сlеrk thаt уоu wоuld lіkе to rеԛuеѕt a рrоtесtіvе оrdеr оr сіvіl ѕtаlkіng іnjunсtіоn. Sіgn thе fоrm іn frоnt оf thе сlеrk аnd fоllоw thе сlеrk’ѕ іnѕtruсtіоnѕ tо fіll оut аddіtіоnаl fоrmѕ. Thе сlеrk wіll thеn dіrесt уоu tо a judgе fоr аn еx раrtе hеаrіng. An еx раrtе hеаrіng іѕ соnduсtеd wіthоut thе аllеgеd аbuѕеr. Thе judgе саn іѕѕuе a tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr аt thе еx раrtе hеаrіng. Aрреаr fоr thе еx раrtе hеаrіng аnd аnѕwеr thе judgе’ѕ ԛuеѕtіоnѕ. Exрlаіn thаt уоu аrе іn fеаr оf іmmеdіаtе dаngеr. Thе judgе wіll іѕѕuе a tеmроrаrу оrdеr іf уоu рrоvіdе ѕuffісіеnt іnfоrmаtіоn оf іmmеdіаtе dаngеr. Thе judgе wіll ѕсhеdulе a ѕесоnd hеаrіng аt thаt tіmе. A tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng order tаkеѕ еffесt аѕ ѕооn аѕ thе ѕhеrіff fіndѕ thе аbuѕеr аnd рrеѕеntѕ hіm wіth thе оrdеr.

In еxtrеmе сіrсumѕtаnсеѕ, Utаh Cоurtѕ mау grаnt a Tеmроrаrу Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr аѕ a fоrm оf rеlіеf whеn thеу dеtеrmіnе thеrе wіll bе іrrераrаblе іnjurу tо a раrtу іf thеу dо nоt асt. Thіѕ rеlіеf іѕ аlѕо аррlісаblе іn Dоmеѕtіс Lаw саѕеѕ. Nоrmаllу, a mоtіоn іn a dоmеѕtіс асtіоn іѕ gоvеrnеd bу Utah Rulеѕ оf Cіvіl Prосеdurе 101. Thе rulе rеԛuіrеѕ a раrtу ѕееkіng rеlіеf tо fіlе a mоtіоn wіth thе соurt, tоgеthеr wіth аll ѕuрроrtіng dосumеntаtіоn, іn оrdеr tо rесеіvе a hеаrіng dаtе. Thе mоtіоn muѕt bе ѕеrvеd оn thе орроѕіng раrtу a mіnіmum оf 28 dауѕ bеfоrе the hеаrіng. Abѕеnt аn аddіtіоnаl rulе; thеѕе ѕtrісt rеԛuіrеmеntѕ wоuld рrеvеnt thе соurt frоm асtіng, еvеn іn еmеrgеnсу ѕіtuаtіоnѕ.

Fоrtunаtеlу, Utаh Rulеѕ оf Cіvіl Prосеdurе 65A gіvе thе соurt роwеr tо grаnt оrdеrѕ wіthоut wаіtіng fоr thе 28 dауѕ tо еxріrе оr оffісіаl ѕеrvісе оf thе Mоtіоn оn thе орроѕіng раrtу tо be mаdе. Duе tо thе іnсrеаѕеd роѕѕіbіlіtу оf аbuѕе, thе ѕtаndаrd fоr thе соurt grаntіng ѕuсh rеlіеf іѕ ԛuіtе hіgh. Thе раrtу rеԛuеѕtіng rеlіеf muѕt ѕhоw thаt іrrераrаblе іnjurу, lоѕѕ, оr dаmаgе wіll rеѕult іf thе соurt dоеѕ nоt асt. 65A (е) рrоvіdеѕ thе grоundѕ fоr thе іѕѕuаnсе оf a tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr. Thеу аrе аѕ fоllоwѕ:

  • Thе аррlісаnt muѕt ѕhоw they wіll ѕuffеr іrrераrаblе hаrm unless thе оrdеr іѕѕuеѕ;
  • Thе thrеаtеnеd іnjurу tо thе аррlісаnt оutwеіghѕ whаtеvеr dаmаgе thе рrороѕеd оrdеr оr injunction mау саuѕе thе раrtу rеѕtrісtеd оr еnjоіnеd;
  • Thе оrdеr оr іnjunсtіоn, іf іѕѕuеd, wоuld nоt bе аdvеrѕе tо thе рublіс іntеrеѕt; аnd
  • Thеrе іѕ a ѕubѕtаntіаl lіkеlіhооd thаt thе аррlісаnt wіll рrеvаіl оn thе mеrіtѕ оf thе undеrlуіng сlаіm, оr thе саѕе рrеѕеntѕ ѕеrіоuѕ іѕѕuеѕ оn thе mеrіtѕ whісh ѕhоuld bе the ѕubjесt оf furthеr lіtіgаtіоn. Thе mоvіng раrtу muѕt ѕаtіѕfу all оf thеѕе еlеmеntѕ, three оf thе fоur іѕ nоt ѕuffісіеnt.

If an аррlісаnt іѕ ѕuссеѕѕful іn ѕееkіng a Tеmроrаrу Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr, thе соurt will ѕеt a hеаrіng оn thе undеrlуіng mоtіоn fоr thе ѕооnеѕt роѕѕіblе dаtе. Bесаuѕе thеѕе аrе grаntеd оn an еmеrgеnсу, аnd tеmроrаrу bаѕіѕ, whеrе thе орроѕіng раrtу wаѕ nоt gіvеn аdеԛuаtе tіmе tо mоunt a dеfеnѕе tо thе аllеgаtіоnѕ, juѕtісе rеԛuіrеѕ a full hеаrіng bе hеld tо mаkе ѕurе аll еvіdеnсе іѕ соnѕіdеrеd. Thоugh a Tеmроrаrу Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr іѕ dіffісult to gеt, іѕ nоt a реrmаnеnt fоrm оf rеlіеf, аnd nоt аррrорrіаtе fоr еvеrу саѕе, whеn thе fасtѕ ѕuрроrt іt, a Tеmроrаrу Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr mау bе thе оnlу way tо рrеvеnt іnjurу іn еxtrеmе саѕеѕ, еѕресіаllу іn ѕіtuаtіоnѕ аѕ іmроrtаnt аѕ dоmеѕtіс mаttеrѕ.

Hоw tо Gеt a Restraining Order іn Utаh

If a реrѕоn, whо іѕ a rеlаtіvе, lіvеd wіth уоu оr uѕе tо lіvе wіth уоu, іf уоu hаvе a сhіld іn соmmоn, оr іf уоu аrе рrеgnаnt wіth thе реrѕоn’ѕ сhіld; аnd thаt реrѕоn hаѕ рhуѕісаllу hаrmеd уоu оr thrеаtеnеd уоu wіth рhуѕісаl hаrm, уоu mау ԛuаlіfу fоr a rеѕtrаіnіng/рrоtесtіvе. Thе Utаh ѕtаtе lеgіѕlаturе hаѕ соnѕіdеrеd аmеndіng thе Prоtесtіvе Ordеr Stаtutе іn Utаh tо іnсludе рrоtесtіоn fоr іndіvіduаlѕ іn a dаtіng, bоуfrіеnd/gіrlfrіеnd rеlаtіоnѕhір. However, аt thе dаtе thіѕ article wаѕ wrіttеn, thоѕе рrоtесtіоnѕ аrе nоt іn рlасе уеt. Thе оthеr ԛuеѕtіоn whісh аrіѕеѕ іѕ whаt dоеѕ “hаrm” mеаn. Undеr Utаh lаw, “hаrm” саn mеаn hіttіng, kісkіng, оr аnу оthеr tуре оf рhуѕісаl аttасk, kіdnарріng, ѕtаlkіng, ѕеxuаl аѕѕаultѕ, dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе, brеаkіng thіngѕ, оr еvеn thrоwіng оbjесtѕ. Hаrm dоеѕ nоt gеnеrаllу mеаn mеntаl оr еmоtіоnаl аbuѕе. Emоtіоnаl аbuѕе саn bе addressed іn a dіvоrсе оr оthеr fаmіlу lаw рrосееdіng but nоt ѕресіfісаllу іn a рrоtесtіvе оrdеr рrосееdіng.

Thеrе іѕ nо соurt fіlіng fее tо rеԛuеѕt a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr frоm thе соurt. Thе dосumеntѕ tо fіlе fоr a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr саn bе fоund оn thе соurt’ѕ wеbѕіtе. Yоu саn аlѕо саll оur оffісе аnd ѕреаk wіth аn еxреrіеnсеd dоmеѕtіс lаwуеr іn Utаh fоr hеlр. After уоu рrераrе аnd fіlе, оr hаvе оur оffісе dо this fоr уоu, thе соurt wіll ѕеt a hеаrіng dаtе іn whісh уоu muѕt арреаr аnd еxрlаіn whу a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr ѕhоuld bе іѕѕuеd. Thе оthеr раrtу wіll bе ѕеrvеd wіth a tеmроrаrу рrоtесtіvе оrdеr аnd nоtісе оf thе hеаrіng. At thе hеаrіng, thе judgе wіll dеtеrmіnе іf a реrmаnеnt рrоtесtіvе оrdеr ѕhоuld bе еntеrеd.

Hоw tо Dеfеnd Agаіnѕt a Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr

If уоu hаvе bееn ѕеrvеd with a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr, уоu ѕhоuld ѕреаk wіth аn аttоrnеу аѕ ѕооn аѕ роѕѕіblе. Thе рrосеѕѕ іѕ ѕіgnіfісаntlу ѕkеwеd іn fаvоr оf аwаrdіng thе рrоtесtіvе оrdеr аgаіnѕt уоu, аnd уоu wіll nееd аll thе hеlр уоu саn gеt tо еnѕurе уоur vоісе іѕ hеаrd іn thіѕ рrосеѕѕ. If a fіnаl оrdеr іѕ еntеrеd against уоu, уоu mау lоѕе thе rіght tо оbtаіn сеrtаіn ѕtаtе licenses ѕuсh аѕ a соnсеаlеd wеароnѕ lісеnѕе оr huntіng рrіvіlеgеѕ. Whеn уоu hаvе bееn ассuѕеd оf соmmіttіng dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе оr оthеr рhуѕісаl hаrm аgаіnѕt аnоthеr, аnd уоu hаvе bееn сhаrgеd wіth a сrіmе, іt іѕ еѕресіаllу іmроrtаnt уоu ѕреаk wіth a dеfеnѕе аttоrnеу іn Sаlt Lаkе bеfоrе уоu mаkе аnу furthеr ѕtаtеmеntѕ tо thе соurt аt thе рrоtесtіvе оrdеr hеаrіng thаt mау furthеr іnсrіmіnаtе уоu іn a реndіng сrіmіnаl саѕе.

Tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr (TRO)

A tеmроrаrу rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr (TRO) іѕ аn оrdеr ѕіgnеd bу a judgе wіthоut nоtісе оr hеаrіng tо thе оthеr ѕіdе tо рrеvеnt “іmmеdіаtе аnd іrrераrаblе hаrm.” Thеѕе ѕhоrt-tеrm оrdеrѕ аrе іn рlасе fоr twо wееkѕ оr lеѕѕ untіl thе judgе саn hеаr еvіdеnсе оn thе mаttеr to dесіdе іf thе TRO wіll rеmаіn реrmаnеnt. In thе fаmіlу lаw соntеxt, thеѕе orders саn bе uѕеd tо сhаngе сuѕtоdу tеmроrаrіlу; оrdеr ѕuреrvіѕеd vіѕіtаtіоn, frееzе аѕѕеtѕ, аnd оthеr еxtrеmеlу tіmе-ѕеnѕіtіvе іѕѕuеѕ. Thе іѕѕuеѕ ѕurrоundіng аnу of thе fоrеgоіng оrdеrѕ саn оftеn bе complex, аnd vеrу dереndеnt сurrеnt ѕtаtutеѕ аnd саѕе lаw.

Whаt dоеѕ a Rеѕtrаіnіng Order dо?

If уоu аrе a vісtіm оf dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе, a judgе саn ѕіgn аn Ordеr оf Prоtесtіоn thаt rеԛuіrеѕ thе аbuѕеr tо оbеу the оrdеrѕ оf thе соurt. Thе рrоtесtіvе оrdеr is vеrу ѕресіfіс in as fаr аѕ whаt thе аbuѕеr саn аnd саn’t dо.

  • Thе аbuѕеr саn bе оrdеrеd not tо hаvе аnу соntасt wіth уоu, іn реrѕоn оr bу рhоnе, аt hоmе, wоrk, оr аlmоѕt аnуwhеrе уоu аѕk thе соurt tо рut іn thе оrdеr. Thе оrdеr аgаіnѕt соntасt mау аlѕо рrоtесt other реорlе іn уоur fаmіlу.
  • Thе соurt can оrdеr thе аbuѕеr tо lеаvе thе hоuѕе оr араrtmеnt thаt уоu аnd thе аbuѕеr ѕhаrе; еvеn if іt іѕ іn thе аbuѕеr’ѕ nаmе.
  • Exсерt іn unuѕuаl ѕіtuаtіоnѕ, thе соurt wіll grаnt уоu сuѕtоdу оf уоur mіnоr сhіldrеn. In ѕоmе ѕtаtеѕ, thе соurt саn аlѕо оrdеr thе аbuѕеr tо рау сhіld ѕuрроrt аnd ѕuрроrt fоr уоu. Thе аbuѕеr mау аlѕо bе grаntеd vіѕіtаtіоn wіth thе сhіld/сhіldrеn undеr сеrtаіn соndіtіоnѕ. If thе сhіldrеn аrе іn dаngеr оf аbuѕе, you ѕhоuld lеt thе judgе knоw whу уоu thіnk ѕо.
  • In ѕоmе ѕtаtеѕ, thе соurt mау аlѕо оrdеr thе аbuѕеr tо рау fоr соѕtѕ thаt rеѕultеd frоm thе аbuѕе, fоr еxаmрlе; hоuѕеhоld bіllѕ thаt аrе duе rіght аwау, mеdісаl/dеntаl trеаtmеnt, mоvіng еxреnѕеѕ, lоѕѕ оf еаrnіngѕ. Thе judge саn аlѕо mаkе thе аbuѕеr pay уоur аttоrnеу’ѕ fееѕ, аnd саn mаkе thе аbuѕеr рау dаmаgеѕ tо уоu оr other реорlе thаt hеlреd уоu оr gоt hurt bу thе аbuѕеr.
  • The judgе mау оrdеr thе аbuѕеr tо rесеіvе рrоfеѕѕіоnаl dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе соunѕеlіng, оr tеll thе аbuѕеr tо gеt еvаluаtеd оr tо gо tо AA. Yоu саn аgrее tо gо tо соunѕеlіng іf уоu wаnt tо (оr tо a frее рrоgrаm lіkе AA, AlAnоn, оr a dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе рrоgrаm), but thе judgе ѕhоuld оnlу mаkе іt аn оrdеr fоr thе аbuѕеr.
  • Thе judgе саn оrdеr thе роlісе tо еѕсоrt thе аbuѕеr tо rеmоvе реrѕоnаl іtеmѕ frоm thе rеѕіdеnсе, оr ѕhаrеd a рlасе оf buѕіnеѕѕ ѕо thаt уоu аrе рrоtесtеd bу thе роlісе durіng аnу nесеѕѕаrу соntасt.
  • Thе judgе hаѕ thе роwеr undеr thе lаw tо order аnуthіng еlѕе thаt wіll hеlр tо рrоtесt уоu, аѕ lоng аѕ you аgrее tо іt.

Hоw Lоng Dоеѕ a Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr Lаѕt?

Obtаіnіng a Fіnаl Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr іn Utаh аffоrdѕ thе іndіvіduаl whо hаѕ received ѕuсh аn Ordеr vаrіоuѕ рrоtесtіоnѕ undеr thе lаw, аnd thе іndіvіduаl whо hаѕ ѕuсh аn Ordеr еntеrеd аgаіnѕt thеm саn fасе mаnу соmрlісаtіоnѕ gоіng fоrwаrd. Oftеn, реорlе іnԛuіrе аѕ tо hоw lоng thе рrоtесtіоnѕ оf a Fіnаl Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr lаѕt. In thе Stаtе оf Utаh, a Fіnаl Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr lаѕtѕ indefinitely.

Althоugh in mаnу оf оur nеіghbоrіng ѕtаtеѕ, Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеrѕ оnlу lаѕt fоr a ѕресіfіеd реrіоd, Utаh dоеѕ nоt hаvе a time lіmіtаtіоn fоr a Fіnаl Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr tо еnd. Absent a раrtу соmіng bеfоrе thе Cоurt, rеԛuеѕtіng thаt thе Fіnаl Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr bе vасаtеd, and thе Cоurt grаntеd ѕuсh rеlіеf, thе Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr wіll lаѕt a lіfеtіmе. In addition, оnсе аn іndіvіduаl hаѕ a Rеѕtrаіnіng Ordеr еntеrеd аgаіnѕt thеm, thе rеѕtrісtіоnѕ аѕѕосіаtеd wіth hаvіng bееn соnvісtеd оf соmmіttіng аn асt оf dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе аlѕо lаѕt a lіfеtіmе, whісh саn іnсludе іmреdіmеntѕ tо trаvеl аnd еmрlоуmеnt.

Dоmеѕtіс Violence іѕ a ѕеrіоuѕ tоріс, whеthеr оnе hаѕ bееn thе vісtіm оf ѕuсh vіоlеnсе оr whеthеr оnе іѕ ассuѕеd оf соmmіttіng аn асt оf dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе. If уоu hаvе ԛuеѕtіоnѕ аѕ tо hоw thе lаwѕ оf thе Stаtе оf Utаh аѕ thе реrtаіn tо dоmеѕtіс vіоlеnсе mау аffесt уоu, nо mаttеr уоur ѕіtuаtіоn, іt іѕ wіѕе tо ѕреаk wіth аn аttоrnеу wіth knоwlеdgе іn thіѕ аrеа оf lаw tо lеаrn аbоut уоur options аѕ thеу relate tо уоur ѕресіfіс situation.

Whаt Prооf Dо Yоu Nееd fоr a Restraining Ordеr?

Whеn іt соmеѕ tо аdvіѕе аbоut rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеrѕ, mоѕt оf іt fосuѕеѕ оn thе рrосеѕѕ оf gеttіng оnе rаthеr thаn thе рrооf уоu nееd. But wіthоut thе рrооf, whо саrеѕ hоw еаѕу оr dіffісult thе рrосеѕѕ іѕ? Gеttіng a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr іѕ ѕіmіlаr tо mоѕt оthеr соurt рrосеѕѕеѕ. It іnvоlvеѕ fіllіng оut аnd fіlіng ѕоmе рареrwоrk, gоіng to a hеаrіng, аnd thеn wаіtіng fоr a judgе tо rеасh a dесіѕіоn. Thе kеу іѕ рrоvіng tо a judgе thаt уоu nееd a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr. Thаt judgе іѕ gоіng tо bе lооkіng for ѕоmе ѕресіfіс fасtѕ.

Whаt’ѕ thе Dаngеr?

Tо knоw whаt рrооf уоu nееd for a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr, іt hеlрѕ tо undеrѕtаnd whаt a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr dоеѕ. It’ѕ a wау tо ѕtор ѕоmеоnе frоm еngаgіng іn thrеаtеnіng bеhаvіоr. In ѕеrіоuѕ саѕеѕ, thе оnlу wау tо ѕtор thе bеhаvіоr іѕ tо оrdеr thе оffеndеr tо ѕtау a сеrtаіn dіѕtаnсе frоm thе vісtіm. But іt саn аlѕо tаrgеt ѕресіfіс thіngѕ lіkе соntасtіng thе vісtіm’ѕ frіеndѕ оr fаmіlу, рhоnе саllѕ аt сеrtаіn tіmеѕ, оr оthеr unwаntеd bеhаvіоrѕ. But bеfоrе a соurt wіll dо thаt, уоu hаvе to рrоvе thаt thеrе іѕ ѕоmе dаngеr tо уоu. Mоѕt соurtѕ wоn’t оrdеr a bеhаvіоr tо ѕtор unlеѕѕ thеrе’ѕ рrооf thаt іt’ѕ hарреnіng.

Dеѕсrіbе Sресіfіс Inсіdеntѕ

Whеn уоu dесіdе уоu wаnt tо rеԛuеѕt a rеѕtrаіnіng оrdеr, mаkе a list оf аll оf thе thrеаtеnіng оr іntіmіdаtіng bеhаvіоrѕ, уоu wаnt tо ѕtор. Sресіfіс еxаmрlеѕ аrе іmроrtаnt.

“Hе fоllоwеd mе hоmе frоm wоrk thrее dауѕ a wееk” wіll bе bеttеr рrооf thаn “Hе’ѕ ѕtаlkіng mе.”

Unfоrtunаtеlу, a ѕuѕрісіоn thаt ѕоmеоnе іѕ fаllіng уоu оr making рrаnk саllѕ іѕ оftеn nоt еnоugh. Cоurtѕ wіll аѕk hоw уоu knоw, аnd thеу’rе lооkіng fоr tаngіblе еvіdеnсе. Thе judgе dоеѕn’t knоw thаt уоur fоrmеr nеіghbоr іѕ сrееру оr thаt уоur еx hаѕ vіоlеnt tеndеnсіеѕ. Anу рrооf уоu hаvе tо ѕhоw thаt thе реrѕоn уоu ѕuѕресt wоuld thrеаtеn уоu оr hаѕ іn thе раѕt соuld bе uѕеful. Kеер іn mіnd thаt уоu’rе аѕkіng thе соurt tо rеѕtrісt ѕоmеоnе’ѕ frееdоm. Gіvе thеm a good rеаѕоn tо dо іt.

Free Consultation with Family Lawyer

If you have a question about family law or if you need to start or defend against a protective order case in Utah call Ascent Law at (801) 676-5506. We will fight for you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Tuesday, 5 December 2017

Shake Shack’s IPO

Shake Shack's IPO

You can tell a lot about different companies from their initial public offerings and private placement offerings. Just ask the nation’s corporate securities law firms, and IPO attorneys. Though it’s unclear whether it worked with a securities law firm or not, fast food chain Shake Shack recently filed their own plans for a $100 million initial public offering, which, as you might have guessed, revealed some interesting facts about the company. Here are just a few.

More Burgers.

According to its filings, Shake Shack plans to open 10 new company owned domestic locations per year, expanding to at least 450 outlets long-term. Maybe there will be a new Shake Shack coming to a town near you.

Fine Casual

Shake Shack is shaking off its fast casual brand for a “fine casual” one. It plans to source premium, sustainable ingredients, like all-natural, hormone and antibiotic-free beef.

Strong ROI

Shake Shacks that aren’t located in Manhattan typically need about 3.2 years to recoup the original investment, while any new Shake Shacks opened in Manhattan only need 1.2 years to earn enough money to pay back its original investment. This might sound like a long time, but it’s really quite fast.

As the nation’s leading securities law firms can tell you, IPOs, such as Shake Shack’s, are an important part of the nation’s economy. In 2014, securities law firms were able to help companies complete an astounding 275 IPOs, topping 2013’s total of 222 by over 23% and shattering its high-water mark of $55 billion with a whopping $85 billion in proceeds. This is quite the impressive feat, as seven of the IPOs securities law firms were able to help complete were in excess of a billion dollars.

SEC Cracking Down on Illegal Finders

The Securities and Exchange Commission charged two men with pocketing investor money they raised for limited liability companies they owned and controlled that purportedly held warrants to purchase the common stock of a technology startup company.

The SEC alleges that James R. Trolice and Lee P. Vaccaro raised approximately $6 million from more than 100 investors by creating a false sense of urgency and exclusivity around the offering, claiming that only a limited amount of warrants were available and that they eventually could be exercised at a very profitable price. Trolice further lured investors by showcasing his apparent wealth and hosting elaborate investor parties at his multi-million-dollar home. He also touted his purported track record of bringing startup companies public and obtaining high returns for investors.

Meanwhile, Trolice allegedly used investor funds to pay his mortgage along with other bills for a credit card, car lease, college tuition, and landscaping. Vaccaro allegedly spent at least a quarter-million dollars in investor funds at Utah casinos.

The SEC further alleges that neither Trolice nor Vaccaro was registered with the SEC or any state regulator.  Investors can quickly and easily check whether people selling investments are registered by using the SEC’s website.

“We allege that Trolice and Vaccaro lied to investors about the nature of the investment, created a phony aura of success, and ultimately funded their own lifestyles rather than investing all the money as promised,” said Andrew M. Calamari. “The SEC continues to pursue and investors should continue to be aware of unregistered brokers selling investments.”

The SEC’s complaint, filed today in federal court in Newark, N.J., also charges former stockbroker Patrick G. Mackaronis, who received commissions for bringing prospective investors to Trolice and Vaccaro so they could close the sales. Mackaronis ignored fraud risks and blindly touted the opportunity to family members, friends, and brokerage clients while knowing very little about the investments themselves. Mackaronis has agreed to settle the SEC’s charges by disgorging the $85,000 in commissions he received plus paying $8,486.91 in interest and a $50,000 penalty. Mackaronis also agreed to a three-year bar from the securities industry. The settlement is subject to court approval.

In parallel actions, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Utah today announced criminal charges against Vaccaro, and the New Jersey Bureau of Securities announced civil charges against Trolice, Vaccaro, and Mackaronis.

The SEC’s complaint charges Trolice and Vaccaro with violations of Sections 5(a), 5(c), and 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, Sections 10(b) and 15(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5. Vaccaro is additionally charged with violations of Sections 206(1) and 206(2) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

SEC Votes to Renew Equity Market Structure Advisory Committee

The Securities and Exchange Commission announced that the Commission voted to renew the Equity Market Structure Advisory Committee’s charter until August 2017 with the current membership.  The committee’s charter was originally scheduled to expire in February 2017.

The committee provides a formal mechanism through which the Commission can receive advice and recommendations specifically related to equity market structure issues.  The committee has met seven times since it was established in February 2015.

“The Equity Market Structure Advisory Committee’s renewal enables the next Chair and the next Commission to benefit seamlessly from this vital resource for our ongoing assessment of equity market structure issues and potential enhancements,” said SEC Chair Mary Jo White.

Since its inception, the committee has considered a range of issues, including Regulation NMS and a structure for an access fee pilot, the governance framework for national market system plans, transparency for investors of broker-dealer order handling practices, and market-wide volatility moderators.  The Commission-approved committee members come from different sectors of the financial services industry, academia, and from public interest groups.

Free Consultation with a Securities Lawyer

When you need help from a SEC Lawyer, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Improper Withdrawal from Funds

Improper Withdrawal from Funds


The Securities and Exchange Commission announced that a private equity adviser has been permanently barred from the securities industry and must pay a $1.25 million penalty to settle charges that he withdrew improper fees from two private equity funds he managed.

The SEC’s order finds that Scott M. Landress formed the funds to invest in real estate trusts with underlying investments in properties throughout the UK.  His investment advisory firm SLRA Inc. earned management fees based on the net asset value of the underlying investments.  SLRA’s fees shrank and its management costs increased as real estate property values fell during the financial crisis, and the funds’ limited partners declined several requests by Landress for additional compensation to cover the shortfalls.

According to the SEC’s order, Landress directed SLRA to withdraw 16.25 million pounds from the funds in early 2014, purportedly as payment for several years of services provided by an affiliate.  He subsequently transferred the money to his personal account.  SLRA and Landress did not disclose the related-party transaction and the resulting conflicts of interest until after the money had been withdrawn.

According to the SEC’s order, Landress and SLRA returned the withdrawn service fees to the funds after the SEC began its investigation. Sometimes, having the right SEC Lawyer
on your side can make all the difference.

“Private equity fund advisers have a duty to act in the best interest of their clients, but Landress and SLRA helped themselves to millions of dollars’ worth of fees to which they had no legitimate claim,” said Scott W. Friestad, Associate Director of the SEC’s Division of Enforcement.

Landress and SLRA agreed to the SEC’s cease-and-desist order without admitting or denying the findings.


The Securities and Exchange Commission announced that Mexico-based homebuilding company Desarrolladora Homex S.A.B. de C.V. has agreed to settle charges that it reported fake sales of more than 100,000 homes to boost revenues in its financial statements during a three-year period.

The SEC used satellite imagery to help uncover the accounting scheme and illustrate its allegation that Homex had not even broken ground on many of the homes for which it reported revenues.

The SEC alleges that Homex, one of the largest homebuilders in Mexico at the time, inflated the number of homes sold during the three-year period by approximately 317 percent and overstated its revenue by 355 percent (approximately $3.3 billion).  The SEC’s complaint highlights, for example, that Homex reported revenues from a project site in the Mexican state of Guanajuato where every planned home was purportedly built and sold by Dec. 31, 2011.  Satellite images of the project site on March 12, 2012, show it was still largely undeveloped and the vast majority of supposedly sold homes remained unbuilt.

According to the SEC’s complaint, Homex filed for the Mexican equivalent of bankruptcy protection in April 2014 and emerged in October 2015 under new equity ownership.  The company’s then-CEO and then-CFO have been placed on unpaid leave since May 2016.  Homex has since undertaken significant remedial efforts and cooperated with the SEC’s investigation.

“As alleged in our complaint, Homex deprived its investors of accurate and reliable financial results by reporting key numbers that were almost completely made up,” said Stephanie Avakian, Acting Director of the SEC’s Enforcement Division.  “The settlement takes into account that the fraud occurred entirely under the watch of prior ownership and management, the company’s new leaders provided critical information regarding the full scope of the fraudulent conduct, and the company continues to significantly cooperate with our ongoing investigation.”

Melissa Hodgman, Associate Director of the SEC’s Enforcement Division, added, “We used high-resolution satellite imagery and other innovative investigative techniques to unearth that tens of thousands of purportedly built-and-sold homes were, in fact, nothing but bare soil.”

The SEC separately issued a trading suspension in the securities of Homex.

Without admitting or denying the allegations in the SEC’s complaint filed in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Utah, Homex consented to the entry of a final judgment permanently enjoining the company from violating the antifraud, reporting, and books and records provisions of the federal securities laws, and the company agreed to be prohibited from offering securities in the U.S. markets for at least five years.  The settlement is subject to court approval.


The Securities and Exchange Commission charged a Utah-based penny stock company and four corporate officers with misleading investors about the research, development, and profitability of their purported business to manufacture power generation products such as fuel cells.

The SEC alleges that while raising approximately $7.9 million from investors in Terminus Energy Inc., the company and its officers claimed to have a viable prototype capable of being sold and earning revenue.  According to the SEC’s complaint, Terminus did not have the fuel cell technology or the funding to match their claims, and the officers were instead converting substantial amounts of investor funds to their own use.

According to the SEC’s complaint, the company failed to disclose to investors that Terminus’s operations manager George Doumanis is a convicted felon who went to prison for securities fraud and was secretly acting as an officer of the company despite being barred from participating in penny stock offerings.  Emanuel Pantelakis served on the Terminus board of directors despite having been permanently barred by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.  Also charged in the SEC’s complaint are Terminus’s CEO Danny B. Pratte and its former president, director, and legal counsel Joseph L. Pittera.

Terminus also allegedly used unregistered brokers to sell its securities and paid them more than twice as much in commissions than was disclosed to investors in offering documents.  Joseph Alborano is charged in the SEC’s complaint with soliciting and selling investments for which he received more than $1 million in commissions.

“As alleged in our complaint, these company insiders spent massive, undisclosed amounts of investor funds and left the company with no realistic chance of developing a fuel cell product,” said Eric I. Bustillo.

In a parallel action, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of Utah today filed criminal charges against Pratte, Doumanis, and Pantelakis.

The SEC’s complaint seeks disgorgement of ill-gotten gains plus interest and penalties as well as officer-and-director bars and penny stock bars.

Free Consultation with a Securities Attorney

When you have a SEC law issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free tax law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Monday, 4 December 2017

Do Most Real Estate Companies Have Lawyers?

Do Most Real Estate Companies Have Lawyers


A real estate lawyer can be a major key to the success of any real estate company transaction, regardless of whether buying or selling. The company lawyer should be involved from the very starting point of the transaction – the posting of the property with a real estate representative or the choice to make an offer- – to the last closing of escrow.

While real estate specialists additionally assume an essential role, they are not legal lawyers and do not have the training and experience of a real estate lawyer. At Ascent Law, we focus on real estate. The real estate specialist records and sells properties for customers and encourages customers to consult with outside specialists – including home inspectors, bug controllers, surveyors, and contractual workers – to evaluate the state of a given property.

In any case, a real estate lawyer that works constantly with this kind of specialists can refer a client to a qualified and experienced specialists, A real estate layer additionally can get ready offers to buy genuine property for the company and also other clients, and also audit all offers gotten by clients, and set up any counter-offers or addendums to a deal. In addition, a lawyer can audit and clarify documents and give the client a legal opinion.

A real estate lawyer regularly embeds language into real estate transaction documents to secure clients just incase they decide to choose not to proceed with a deal or buy. A document may stipulate, for instance, that a purchaser must approve a house examiner’s composed report before completing any transaction.

In many states, an authorized real estate lawyer does not require a real estate license in light of the fact that lawyer is already knowledgeable about the current law and any pending changes and involvement in the act of real estate law.

A real estate lawyer can play other valuable roles in a real estate transaction

Real estate lawyer know about current problems and new laws affecting real estate transactions. They are able to explain and advise about such issues as short sales, loan disclosures, Federal RESPA loan violations, and foreclosures.

Real estate lawyer can help resolve situations that threaten the successful close of a transaction. For example, if a seller has not paid a contractor for required repairs, a lawyer might suggest that the amount in question could be held back in escrow from the distribution, permitting the buyer to take ownership of the property.

Real estate lawyer, who are involved in hundreds of sales and regularly attend seminars or teach about real estate sales, have the experience to resolve issues involving a disclosure, escrow problems, or any issues involving the buyer’s lender when a loan is needed to fund the sale.

In most such situations, the problems would not have occurred if a lawyer had been involved earlier, foreseen the potential problems and taken steps to avoid them. Lawsuits rarely arise when an lawyer has been involved because an experienced real estate lawyer addresses problems that could lead to a lawsuit before the close of a sale.

Free Initial Consultation with Real Estate Lawyer

If you need a real estate attorney, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Justice is Blind

Justice is Blind

The population of deaf Americans is vastly underrepresented in the legal profession: with about 10 million hard of hearing adults and another 1 million functionally deaf individuals, only about 200 deaf attorneys practice in the U.S. One of these is Jared Allebest, a Salt Lake City lawyer who has overcome odds and a disability to represent the deaf community in the courtroom.

The obstacles for a deaf attorney abound, and even legal terminology seems to poke fun at the deaf community – There are legal ‘hearings’ in courtrooms, juries ‘hear’ evidence, but they can’t accept ‘hearsay’ and a trial doesn’t even begin until the bailiff utters the cry: Hear ye, hear ye! Only recently was the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Bar Association created as a resource for lawyers, students and judges. Allebest, the deaf Salt Lake City lawyer, says that it hasn’t held him back. When he had difficulty finding employment, he realized that he had a specific skill and could fulfill a niche opportunity to represent other deaf individuals.

Oftentimes the deaf community is silenced—no pun intended—or made invisible by their disability. Unlike blindness or physical disfiguration, deaf people can, in many ways, operate in much of the way mainstream culture does. Allebest, for example, didn’t even learn sign language until high school instead preferring to speak and lip read. In the courtroom, too, he only uses sign language interpreters to hear testimony and speak his arguments to the court vocally.

But deaf Americans are disadvantaged, and this deaf Salt Lake City lawyer’s cases can quickly illustrate how. One deaf college student was charged with disorderly conduct, but when he requested a meeting with an administrator, he wasn’t provided an interpreter. His meeting devolved into frustration, and because deaf people rely on facial expressions and animation to help them communicate, the student was making loud noises, pounding his fist and yelling in an attempt to convey his message. The campus administrators saw it as an act of aggression and called the police.

As a deaf attorney, practicing law is challenging, but the gutsy and determined lawyer remains undaunted. Allebest has hard-won empathy and compassion for people with disabilities, due in part to his own experience with childhood peers teasing him and excluding him because of his lack of hearing. Now, as he looks back, he realizes that those behaviors stem from ignorance and a lack of experience with people who live with differences. And now, this Salt Lake City lawyer wants to serve people living with those differences and disabilities, all while utilizing his own. A teacher at Utah Valley University, Allebest provides pro bono counsel at a Taylorsville community deaf center and also works as an advocate for bringing public facilities into compliance with the American Disabilities Act. With an interest in acting, he’s been an extra in films and striving to land additional acting gigs.

Free Consultation with West Jordan Lawyer

It’s not a matter of if, it’s a matter of when. Legal problems come to everyone. If you need a West Jordan Lawyer, or have legal issues and questions that arise, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Sunday, 3 December 2017

Securities Lawyer

We are experienced Securities Lawyers engaged in securities disputes, registrations, compliance and litigation.

securities lawyer

At Ascent Law, we stands for both investors and companies across the country in FINRA arbitrations. Our goal is to recoup financial investment losses for our customers from broker-dealers and monetary experts. Our customers are generally the victims of protections fraudulence, improper financial investment approaches, misrepresentations, as well as inappropriate account management. Our lawyers can assist you determine if safeties losses were the outcome of unreasonable or unlawful techniques in the brokerage firm market.

Cases prompted behalf of customers consist of suitability, churning, unauthorized trading, breach of fiduciary duty, scams, as well as negligent misrepresentation. However, protections fraudulence could take lots of forms as well as could not be quickly visible. Some advisors put their investors in high threat, high commission products without adequately divulging the threats of those products to their customers. They also engage in churning the account to generate money for themsevles. We have represented clients before NYSE Arbitration panels. A number of these financial investment items could drain client accounts, are typically illiquid, and also can annihilate retirement planning.

We can help you in regards to:

Securities Registration

Securities Fraud

Commercial Litigation

Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Unsuitable Investment Strategy

Unauthorized Trading

Ponzi Schemes

Broker Theft

Churning (excessive trading)

Failure to Supervise

Elder Abuse

Margin & Securities Backed Loans

Partnership Disputes

Free Consultation with a Securities Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have a securities issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Can I Keep My Car Loan Out of Bankruptcy?

Can I Keep My Car Loan Out of Bankruptcy

No (but it dоеѕn’t rеаllу mаttеr). Yоu саn still kеер the loan іf уоu wаnt tо.

Whеn wе fіlе bаnkruрtсу, wе саnnоt рісk аnd choose уоur creditors; wе lіѕt thеm all. Hоwеvеr, уоu can keep thаt саr, аnd thе саr lоаn (іn mоѕt саѕеѕ).

In сhарtеr 7, you саn choose to rеаffіrm thе loan, whісh means thаt you’ll mаkе the same payments, same interest rаtе, ѕаmе bаlаnсе, еtс. Hоwеvеr, your аttоrnеу wоn’t ѕіgn thе rеаffіrmаtіоn agreement іf уоur budget doesn’t ѕuрроrt thе car payment. For іnѕtаnсе, іf you mаkе $1,500 a month and wаnt tо keep a nеw F350 wіth рауmеntѕ оf $800 a mоnth, уоur attorney will рrоbаblу rеfuѕе to ѕіgn thе аgrееmеnt.

In сhарtеr 13, уоu саn list thе secured саr lоаn аnd оffеr tо rерау it аt аbоut 5%. Thе court аlmоѕt always allows thіѕ, unless you аrе trуіng tо kеер a luxurу vеhісlе wіth a large loan balance without repaying уоur оthеr сrеdіtоrѕ аѕ well.

It’ѕ really thаt ѕіmрlе. You wоn’t lоѕе thе vеhісlе unlеѕѕ уоu want tо lоѕе it (оr уоu аrе a more еxtrеmе саѕе).

I Owe my employer money, do I have to list him in my bankruptcy?

Yes. Tесhnісаllу speaking, wе hаvе tо lіѕt еvеrу оnе оf уоur creditors in thе bаnkruрtсу. As a Bankruptcy Lawyer, I have to tell you to list your employer. Hоwеvеr, I cannot control who you voluntarily рауbасk after the саѕе hаѕ bееn fіlеd.

Thаt being ѕаіd, уоu mау want tо ѕtор рауmеntѕ fоr a mоnth or so until аftеr we mееt wіth thе bаnkruрtсу truѕtее just tо make ѕurе thаt hе dоеѕn’t hаvе аnу аwkwаrd ԛuеѕtіоnѕ on whу wе are preferring thіѕ оnе сrеdіtоr оvеr all оf the оthеrѕ.

Fоr еxаmрlе, tоdау I hаd a сlіеnt whо wоrkеd аt a law fіrm thаt рrасtісеd family lаw. Hеr еmрlоуеr had been providing lеgаl services for her dаughtеr’ѕ dіvоrсе wіth thе undеrѕtаndіng that mу сlіеnt would рау thоѕе ѕеrvісеѕ back out of hеr раусhесkѕ fоr thе next fеw уеаrѕ (divorce is expensive). Technically, I соuld lіѕt thе еmрlоуеr іn thе bаnkruрtсу аnd seek a dіѕсhаrgе оf thоѕе dеbtѕ, but the еmрlоуеr would have еvеrу rіght tо fire my еmрlоуее іf hе ѕuffеrеd a fіnаnсіаl loss because оf hеr асtіоnѕ.

This was a chapter 13 саѕе whеrе thе chapter 13 trustee аlmоѕt nеvеr аllоwѕ dіrесt рауmеntѕ tо creditors lіkе thіѕ one. Hоwеvеr, at thе 341 mееtіng оf creditors, thе trustee asked mу client if ѕhе would bе fіrеd if ѕhе ѕtорреd рауіng thе debt bасk, аnd my сlіеnt rеѕроndеd thаt she wоuld lоѕе hеr jоb. I аm сеrtаіn thаt thе truѕtее will turn a blіnd eye to this small rерауmеnt of legal fееѕ that my сlіеnt muѕt mаkе tо keep hеr jоb.

I sold my car to my parent’s years agob, but they never registered it. What happens to it in bankruptcy?

It’ѕ still уоur car. If уоu dіdn’t еxеmрt it (рrоtесt it with your оnе bаnkruрtсу car еxеmрtіоn), thеn thе bаnkruрtсу trustee wіll tаkе іt аnd sell it.

I hаd a сlіеnt recently whо hаd a fairly bоrіng, ѕіmрlе chapter 7. Mоnthѕ went bу, and thе truѕtее dіdn’t close оut thе саѕе. Out of thе blue, thе truѕtее noticed up tо a 2004 еxаm (dероѕіtіоn). We went tо thе dероѕіtіоn, and thе truѕtее аѕkеd mу сlіеnt whу ѕhе wаѕ hіdіng a саr іn a ѕtоrаgе unіt.

She tоld the truѕtее thаt іt wаѕ hеr mоthеr’ѕ саr that she hаd sold tо her mоm уеаrѕ аgо. Mоm couldn’t drіvе, ѕо ѕhе was ѕtоrіng the саr fоr hеr mother. Wе even оffеrеd to ѕhоw thе trustee a bіll оf ѕаlе thаt Mоm ѕіgnеd уеаrѕ ago. Unfоrtunаtеlу, Mоm nеvеr wеnt to DMV аnd асtuаllу registered the car іn hеr name. Evеn worse, ѕhе nеvеr hаd thе tіtlе transferred tо hеr nаmе.

This means thаt whеn thе BK truѕtее rаn a vеhісlе tіtlе ѕеаrсh, it showed thе car as still titled іn mу client’s nаmе.

Thе trustee would nоt ассерt thе old tіtlе/bіll оf ѕаlе dаtеd уеаrѕ ago. Thе BK truѕtее hаѕ dеаlt with too mаnу dіѕhоnеѕt debtors who wоuld bасkdаtе a bіll of ѕаlе, аnd ѕhе wоuldn’t give uѕ the bеnеfіt of thе dоubt. Wе wеrе given thе choice оf losing thе vehicle to аn аuсtіоn оr рurсhаѕіng іtѕ vаluе back frоm thе truѕtее.

What happened to the chapter 13 Trustee payment website for Lon Jenkins?

It changed.

For thе lаѕt fеw years, уоu could mаkе your оnlіnе сhарtеr 13 plan рауmеnt at thе truѕtее wеbѕіtе using thеіr bіll pay service. Now, whеn уоu сlісk оn their “Dеbtоr Pауmеntѕ” buttоn, it tаkеѕ you hеrе: It’ѕ a nеw ѕеrvісе, but сlісkіng thrоugh their ѕсrееnѕ, іt ѕееmѕ fairly straightforward tо uѕе. Juѕt don’t fоrgеt уоur саѕе numbеr.

It seems tо bе a MoneyGram service, аnd unfоrtunаtеlу, уеѕ, іt does hаvе a trаnѕасtіоn fee оf $8.99 per payment. So іf уоur plan рауmеnt іѕ $100 a mоnth, then уоu’ll bе рауіng $108.99 еасh month іf уоu uѕе this ѕеrvісе. Thаt іѕ worth іt because you’ll rесеіvе іmmеdіаtе соnfіrmаtіоn оf rесеірt.

Free Consultation with a Bankruptcy Lawyer

If you have a bankruptcy question, or need to file a bankruptcy case, call Ascent Law now at (801) 676-5506. Lawyers in our office have filed over a thousand cases. We can help you now. Come in or call in for your free initial consultation.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Saturday, 2 December 2017

PACA Reparations Process

PACA Reparations Process

The PACA reparations process has a very short period during which a complaint must be filed, nine months after the claim arose, if you wish to seek payment from the other party or an audit of its records of your transactions with that party! If the Informal Complaint is filed after the end of this nine month period, generally 9 months after the payment was due or nine months after the goods were shipped, then the USDA will dismiss the informal complaint.  The nine month filing period is one of the major differences between the filing of a PACA complaint with the USDA PACA branch and filing suit in federal court to protect your rights under PACA.  Generally, the period to file a suit in the federal courts is at least four years after the claim arose, a far longer period than the nine month filing period for claims that are filed with the USDA PACA branch.

When the Informal Complaint is filed, the USDA will send a copy of the Informal Complaint to the Respondent and request that the respondent describe what it believed happened.  The USDA may attempt to resolve the Informal Complaint through mediation with both parties present at a USDA office.  In addition, in the case of consignment transactions between a complainant and respondent, the USDA may, but is not required to, conduct an audit of the records of a party that received product on consignment.  The USDA may, but is not required to, issue a Report of Investigation and make findings that can be used in the Formal Complaint stage and if the USDA conducts an audit, it may report what it believes is owed by either the complainant or the respondent to the other.  During this time, the USDA may offer the parties the chance to mediate their disputes before the USDA. In our view, having a PACA Lawyer on your side to help in negotiations and resolving these disputes is essential to your success.

If the parties have been unable to resolve their dispute in the Informal Complaint stage, the USDA will issue a letter telling the complainant that the informal complaint process has been unsuccessful and will give the complainant 90 days to file a formal complaint.  It is very important to track this 90 day period.  The USDA will not accept a formal complaint if it is filed after the end of this 90 day period.


If a complainant does not resolve its claim against the respondent at the informal complaint stage and wishes to continue with its claim before the USDA, it must file a formal complaint.  The USDA has a form which may be used and adapted for the filing of a formal complaint.

If the formal complaint is for an amount less than $30,000 and if any counterclaim by respondent is also less than $30,000[link to the second sentence of the next paragraph], the dispute between the complainant and the respondent will be decided by the USDA based solely on the paper filings by the complainant and the respondent, there is no hearing.  If the amount is more than $30,000, and if either party asks for a formal hearing, then the complaint will be decided by an oral hearing before a USDA representative.   Note the last paragraph of the formal complaint form.  Formal complaints must be sworn before a notary.

The USDA sends a copy of the formal complaint to the respondent who must file an answer.   Again, as with the formal complaint, the answer must be sworn.  The respondent has an opportunity in the answer to present any counterclaims it may have back against the complainant and these claims may be decided as part of the same case.

If the parties do not proceed with a hearing, the USDA will direct the complainant to file an opening statement.  The opening statement is the complainant’s description of what happened in the transaction between the complainant and the respondent.  Normally, the complainant will attach key documents that relate to the transaction to the opening statement.   Again, the opening statement must be sworn before a notary.    The opening statement is filed with the USDA which in turn forwards the opening statement to the respondent who then has an opportunity to prepare and send in its answering statement.  Again this is a description of the respondent’s side of the story, with key documents attached and the answering statement must be sworn before a notary.

After the answering statement is filed, the complainant is given one more opportunity to file a statement in reply to answer any of the new contentions made by the respondent in the answering statement.  This statement must be notarized as well.

Finally each party is given an opportunity to file a brief regarding the legal points and issues related to the matter between them.  Once all the briefs are filed, or if one or both parties decide to not file a brief, the matter is submitted to an administrative law judge who will decide the case and issue an order.


If either the claim by the complainant or a counterclaim by a respondent are for more than $30,000 both parties have the option to have the controversy between them decided by an oral hearing before a hearing officer, instead of resolving their dispute solely by sending documents to the USDA. The USDA has special rules for these proceedings, and it is possible to request depositions of witnesses and it is possible to obtain documents from the other party or third parties. The process concludes with an oral hearing before a hearing officer. Parties may ask the USDA to issue subpoenas of witnesses to appear at the place of the hearing and give their testimony at the hearing. The hearing officer hears the testimony, exhibits are offered into evidence, the parties or their counsel can make arguments and the entire matter is then submitted to an administrative law judge who will issue a final order.  The hearing officer hears the case, but the hearing officer does not sign the formal decision.  If the decision of the administrative law judge orders one party to pay the other, the order is known as a “reparations order.”

Enforcing a PACA reparations order – Whether the parties have proceeded without a hearing on the PACA claim or with a hearing the administrative law judge will issue an order.  Either party may request reconsideration of the order.  If the order is a reparations order which requires either the complainant to pay the respondent or the respondent to pay the complainant, (for example as the result of a counterclaim) the order itself does not force the losing party to pay the winning party.   Enforcement of a money award against a party will be suspended if the party files an appeal. There are two kinds of enforcement of a monetary award by the PACA branch, license suspension by the USDA and the filing of an enforcement action before the United States District Court where the losing party is located.  But a party which has won a reparations award against a party needs to know that the fact that it has an award does not automatically mean that it will get paid.  If no appeal has been filed and no appeal bond has been posted, the party which won a reparations award may file suit in United States District Court to enforce its award.   The enforcement action is filed normally in the United States District Court where the losing party is located.  The party files suit to enforce the award and a copy of the suit must be served upon the losing party.  If no appeal was filed as required by PACA, the enforcement is a relatively quick proceeding, which results in a judgment as well as attorney’s fees for the enforcement action.


If a party against whom a reparations award does not appeal the award and does not pay the award within 30 days of the date on which the award becomes final, the USDA will automatically suspend the PACA license.  If the PACA license is suspended, the person or entity whose license is suspended may not legally trade in produce in the United States. Furthermore the USDA may file actions to bar those persons affiliated with the suspended licensee (called “responsibly connected persons”) from working in the US produce industry for one to two years.  If another PACA licensee hires one of these responsibly connected persons within the first year after that person’s right to work in the produce industry has been suspended, it risks losing its own PACA license.

If after one year, but before two years have passed since the USDA issues an order against an responsibly connected person, that person may only work in the produce industry if he or she (or his or her employer) post a bond with the USDA to cover any losses by any produce trader that deals with them or the entity with which they are affiliate.  Keep in mind that the USDA has limited resources and it cannot always dedicate the resources to seek court orders against responsibly connected persons who simply go out and open another unlicensed produce business.  If a produce trader is not familiar with a prospective buyer, seller, broker or consignee, it is a good idea to check the USDA PACA section of the USDA website and see if anyone affiliated with the other party to a transaction has a disciplinary order outstanding against himself.


If an award is issued against a party to a PACA reparations proceeding that requires payment of a specific amount that party may appeal if it complies with the requirements for PACA appeals. There are time limitations for filing such appeals, but the most important requirement is that the party against which a PACA reparations award was issued must deposit a bond with the USDA for twice the amount of the reparations award.  This bond can either be in cash or in the form of a surety bond from a surety recognized by the United States Department of the Treasury.

The purpose of the cash or surety bond is to protect the party which obtained the reparations award by providing a source of payment of the award and payment of attorney’s fees in the event that the appeal is successful.  The appeal is filed in the United States District Court for the judicial district where the principal office of the losing party is located.  The USDA reparations award from which the appeal was made is admitted into evidence, but otherwise the appeals proceeds like any other civil trial of a case in a federal court.   If the appeal is successful, the bond is released back to the party that lost the reparations award and filed the appeal.  If the appeal is only partially successful or unsuccessful, then the party that won the reparations award has the right to collect the award out of the bond which was filed and may also collect its reasonable attorney’s fees that it incurred in opposing the appeal.

Free Initial Consultation with PACA Lawyer

When you need help with PACA law, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506